Assessor: Krystal Tolley
This species is listed on CITES Appendix II, and there have been a number of recorded exports in the last decade, although most exports are listed as captive bred from South Africa (UNEP-WCMC 2018). Recorded exports of wild individuals have been limited to less than 50 individuals. The current level of exploitation is unlikely to affect the species as a whole, but could cause local extinctions of subpopulations given that the habitat is highly fragmented.
The range of this species is >8,000km2 although at least half of this area is highly transformed, with poor quality habitat or complete loss of habitat (Tolley 2017, Tolley In press). Small subpopulations in these fragments could be subject to local extinctions because recolonisation potential across unsuitable habitat can be considered low (see Katz et al. 2013, Tolley et al. 2010).
Individuals are removed from the wild (UNEP-WCMC 2018), although it is unknown if removals are of adults or juveniles.
This species is viviparous, gives birth clutches of 4-15 offspring and may have multiple clutches annually (Tolley & Burger 2007, Tolley et al. 2014). Given their life history, it is likely that the species could recover from limited permanent removals, although their habitat is highly fragmented and recolonsation potential would be limited. A collector could feasibly harvest and entire subpopulation, resulting in local extinctions in these small fragments. Given the limited dispersal ability across unsuitable habitat, recolonisation potential will be low and local extinctions would persist. Removals also could affect genetic diversity of small subpopulations (see Katz et al. 2014).