Conophytum tantillum subsp. eenkokerense

Assessor: Sarah Schumann

Sensitive in 2010
Reason for the sensitivity status
This subspecies and several others of the genus are known to be targeted, exploited and illegally removed from the wild, causing population decline. Evidence shows that the Conophytum genus is in high demand in international horticultural trade. Few known locations of occurrence and a restricted range makes this subspecies vulnerable to population loss and is threatened with over-collection. Releasing data on this subspecies can exacerbate threat and vulnerability.
This species is extremely rare in the wild and is known to be exploited, utilised or traded. The localities of remaining populations need to be protected to avoid any further exploitation, which is likely to drive it to extinction.
Exploitation extent
Significant - wild individuals of the species are known to be exploited, collected, traded or utilized in a targeted manner, and utilisation is widespread, affects the majority of wild populations and/or is causing rapid decline of the wild population.
Justification and references

According to the IUCN Red List Assessment, this subspecies is Endangered as it is range restricted and experiencing population decline due to the threat of illegal collection of mature individuals for the international trade in ornamental succulents as well as by anthropogenic climate change (Young, 2022). As of 2019, this genus has become popular in trade and there is a high demand from international horticultural markets for wild collected plants as indicated by media, police reports and several online marketplace, e-commerce, and auction sites (Friedman, 2021; Tshuma, 2021; Trenchard, 2021; Hyman, 2020; Young, 2020). Plants of this genus were among those targeted and/or confiscated during recent criminal prosecutions of illegal plant collecting (Majikela, 2020; Myburgh, 2021). There has been several recorded confiscations of the subspecies, other tantillum species and others of the genus from illegal plant collection (Confiscation Lists (2019-2021) provided by Cape Nature, SANBI Karoo Desert National Botanical Garden, SANBI Kirstenbosch Botanical Garden, SANParks Sendelingsdrift Botanic Garden and the Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment). Rare Conophytum species remain potentially threatened by collecting (Young et al. 2015). This suggests that this genus and species is being targeted and that this subspecies may be threatened as it is range restricted and thus highly susceptible to a rapid decline through over-collection (Young, 2022).

Friedman, B. 2021. 24 May 2021. South Africa targeted for rare plant poaching placing biodiversity at risk. Cape Talk. Available at:

Hyman, A. 2020. 1 February 2020. Koreans fined R5m as poachers target SA's succulent treasure chest. Times Live. Available at:

Majikela, M. 2020. 31 January 2020. Hefty sentencing for possession of Conophytum plants. Media Statement. South African Police Service Office of the Provincial Commissioner Western Cape. Available at:

Myburgh, A. 2021. 20 January 2021. Man behind bars for possession of endangered plants (Conophytum). Media Statement South African Police Service, Office of the Provincial Commissioner North West. Available at:

Trenchard, T. 2021. 31 July 2021. In South Africa, Poachers Now Traffic in Tiny Succulent Plants. The New York Times. Available at:

Tshuma, N. 2021. 20 May 2021. Collectors drive a spike in theft of indigenous plants in the Western Cape. IOL. Available at:

Young, A.J., Raimondo, D. & Hammer, S.A. 2015. Conophytum hermarium (S.A.Hammer) S.A.Hammer. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1.

Young, A.J., Raimondo, D., Matlamela, P.F. & Kamundi, D.A. 2015. Conophytum tantillum N.E.Br. subsp. eenkokerense (L.Bolus) S.A.Hammer. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. 

Young, A.J. 2020. Conophytum armianum S.A.Hammer. National Assessment: Red List of South African Plants version 2020.1. 

Young, A. 2022. (assessment in prep 2022) Conophytum tantillum subsp. eenkokerense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 

Population vulnerability
Population is vulnerable: size is <= 2500 mature individuals OR the number of known subpopulations is <= 5 OR range is <= 100km2 OR species at risk of localised extinctions
Justification and references

This taxon has an extent of occurrence of 12km², is known from 3 locations and has a population size thought to consist of less than 10,000 mature individuals (Young, 2022).

Young, A. 2022. (assessment in prep 2022) Conophytum tantillum subsp. eenkokerense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 

Targeted demographics
Mature (breeding) individuals are killed, significantly weakened or are permanently removed from the wild, OR immature individuals are targeted and this significantly impacts mature (breeding) individuals.
Justification and references

Whole individuals are recorded in confiscations.

Regeneration potential
This species has a slow population growth rate, or the growth rate varies depending on habitat, and there is a poor chance the wild populations will recover from exploitation OR a collector might feasibly harvest the entire extant population removing the chance of subsequent recruitment.
Justification and references

High levels of endemism and a restricted range makes this species vulnerable to population loss (Hammer, 2002; Young & Desmet, 2016; Young & Rodgerson, 2016). Regeneration potential for the vast majority of the Conophytum genus is very poor as recruitment is low and dependent on successive, appropriate weather conditions. Seeds are not known to disperse. Regeneration will take decades. (Young, personal communication 2021, 5 October)

Hammer, S. 2002. Dumpling and his wife: New view of the genus Conophytum. EAE Creative Colour, Norwich.

Young, A.J. and Desmet, P.G., 2016. The distribution of the dwarf succulent genus Conophytum NE Br.(Aizoaceae) in southern Africa. Bothalia-African Biodiversity & Conservation46(1), pp.1-13.

Young, A.J. and Rodgerson, C., 2016. The dwarf succulent genus Conophytum NE Br.: distribution, habitat and conservation. Aloe52(2).